Inserting, Updating, Deleting and Fetching Objects

To send commands to a database - whether to fetch, insert, delete or update objects - you will create, configure and execute instances of Query<T>. The type argument must be a subclass of ManagedObject<T>. This tells the Query<T> which table it will operate on. Here's an example of a Query<T> that fetches all instances of User:

var query = new Query<User>();
var allUsers = await query.fetch();

A Query<T> has four basic execution methods: fetch, update, insert, delete.

  • fetch will retrieve data from a database (it is equivalent to the SQL operation SELECT).
  • update will modify existing data in a database (it is equivalent to the SQL operation UPDATE).
  • insert will add new data to a database (it is equivalent to the SQL operation INSERT).
  • delete will remove data from a database (it is equivalent to the SQL operation DELETE).

A Query<T> has many configurable properties. These properties will impact which objects get fetched, the data that gets sent to the database, the order that data is returned in, and so on.

Inserting Data with a Query

Let's assume this User type exists:

class User extends ManagedObject<_User> implements _User {}
class _User {
  int id;

  @ManagedColumnAttributes(indexed: true)
  String email;

  String name;

To insert a new row into the _User table, a Query<T> is constructed and executed:

var query = new Query<User>() = "Bob" = "[email protected]";  

var user = await query.insert();  
user.asMap() == {
  "id": 1,
  "name": "Bob",
  "email": "[email protected]"

Every Query<T> has a values property that is the type of managed object being inserted. Here, values is an instance of User. When a Query<T> is executed with insert(), a new row is created in the database with every property that has been set in values. In this case, both name and email have been set. The generated SQL looks like this:

INSERT INTO _user (name, email) VALUES ('Bob', '[email protected]')

Note there is no value provided for the id property in this query. Recall that managedPrimaryKey metadata is a convenience for ManagedColumnAttributes with autoincrementing behavior. Therefore, the database will assign a value for id during insertion. The object returned from insert() will be an instance of User that represents the inserted row and will include the auto-generated id.

Properties that are not set in the values property will not be sent to the database.

Values that are explicitly set to null will be sent as NULL. For example, consider the following Query<T>:

var query = new Query<User>() = null;
await query.insert();

The generated SQL for this query does not send email - because it isn't included - and sends NULL for name:


If a property is not nullable (its ManagedColumnAttributes has nullable: false) and its value is not set in a query prior to inserting it, the query will fail and throw an exception.

You may also set Query.values with an instance of a managed object. This is valuable when reading an object from a JSON HTTP request body:

var user = new User()

var query = new Query<User>()
  ..values = user;

By default, the returned object from an insert() will have all of its properties set. See a later section on configuring which properties are returned from a Query<T>.

If an insert query fails because of a conflict - a unique constraint is violated - the Query<T> will throw a QueryException. See a later section on how QueryExceptions are gracefully handled by RequestControllers. In short, it is unlikely that you have to handle QueryException directly - RequestControllers know how to turn them into the appropriate HTTP response.

Updating Data with a Query

Updating rows with a Query<T> is similar to inserting data: you set the Query.values for properties you want to change. The type parameter for the Query<T> indicates which database table will get updated when the query is executed.

An update query can - and likely should - be restricted to a single row or subset of rows. This is done by configuring the Query.where property - which gets translated into the where clause of the SQL command. Here's an example:

// A Query that will change any user's whose name is 'Bob' to 'Fred'
var query = new Query<User>() = "Fred" = whereEqualTo("Bob");

List<User> bobsThatAreNowFreds = await query.update();

Like values, where is also the same managed object type the query is being executed on. In the above example, then, both values and where and instances of User. This query executes the following SQL:

UPDATE _user SET name='Fred' WHERE name='Bob';

The where property is a very powerful and flexible, and so there is an entire section dedicated to it later in this guide. For now, we'll stick to some of the things specific to update().

Like insert(), only the values set in the values property of a query get updated when executing update(). Values that are omitted are not included. Values that need to be set to null must explicitly be set to null in the query:

// A Query that will remove names from anyone currently named Bob.
var query = new Query<User>() = null = whereEqualTo("Bob");

An update query returns every modified row as a result. If no rows are updated, the return value is an empty list.

There is a variant to Query<T>.update named updateOne. The updateOne method will build and execute a SQL query in the same way a normal update does, however, it will only return the single instance that was updated instead of a list. This is convenience method for the caller to get back a single instance instead of a list:

// Update user with id = 1 to have the name 'Fred'
var query = new Query<User>() = "Fred" = whereEqualTo(1);

var updatedUser = await query.updateOne();

The updateOne method will return null if no rows were updated. It is important to note that if updateOne is used and more than one row is updated, updateOne will throw an exception and the changes to the data are not reversible. Because this is likely a mistake, this is considered an error, hence the exception is thrown. It is up to the programmer to recognize whether or not a particular updateOne query would impact multiple rows.

Update queries have a safety feature that prevents you from accidentally updating every row. If you try to execute a Query<T> to do an update without configuring where, an exception is thrown prior to carrying out the request. If you actually want to update every row of a table, you must set the Query.canModifyAllInstances to true prior to execution. (This property defaults to false.)

Deleting Data with a Query

A Query<T> will delete rows from a database when using delete(). Like update queries, you should specify a row or rows using where properties of the Query<T>. The result of a delete operation will be a Future<int> with the number of rows deleted.

var query = new Query<User>() = whereEqualTo(1);

int usersDeleted = await query.delete();

Also like update queries, delete queries have a safety feature that prevents you from accidentally deleting every row in a table with canModifyAllInstances.

Any properties set in the query's values are ignored when executing a delete.

Fetching Data with a Query

Of the four basic operations of a Query<T>, fetching data is the most configurable. A simple Query<T> that would fetch every instance of some entity looks like this:

var query = new Query<User>();

List<User> allUsers = await query.fetch();

A fetch Query<T> uses its where property to filter the result set, just like delete and update queries. Any properties set in the query's values are ignored when executing a fetch, since there is no need for them. In addition to fetching a list of instances from a database, you may also fetch a single instance with fetchOne. If no instance is found, null is returned.

var query = new Query<User>() = whereEqualTo(1);

User oneUser = await query.fetchOne();

Fetch queries can be limited to a number of instances with the fetchLimit property. You may also set the offset of a Query<T> to skip the first offset number of rows. Between fetchLimit and offset, you can implement naive paging. However, this type of paging suffers from a number of problems and so there is another paging mechanism covered in later sections.

Many of the other fantastic things you can do with fetch queries - like joins, sorting and complex predicates - all deserve their own section and are covered later.

Specifying Result Properties

When executing queries that return managed objects (i.e., insert(), update() and fetch()), the default properties for each object are fetched. The default properties of a managed object are properties that correspond to a database column - attributes declared in the persistent type. A managed object's default properties can be modified when declaring its persistent type:

class _User {
  @ManagedColumnAttributes(omitByDefault: true)
  String hashedPassword;

Any property with omitByDefault set to true will not be fetched by default.

A property that is omitByDefault can still be fetched. Likewise, a property that is in the defaults can still be omitted. Each Query<T> has a returningProperties method to adjust which properties do get returned from the query. Its usage looks like this:

var query = new Query<User>()
  ..returningProperties((user) => [,]);

The method returningProperties takes a closure with one argument - an instance of the type being queried. The closure must return a List of properties to be fetched. Here, both and are returned and this Query<T> will fetch a user's id and name properties only. (The SQL would be something like SELECT id, name FROM _User.) Note that the properties returned from this closure are not added to the list of default properties - the list is an exact set of properties to be returned.

The way returningProperties is constructed is a little interesting. The benefit of this approach is best explained by comparing it to another approach:

var query = new Query<User>()
  ..returningProperties = ["id", "name"]; // This code is not valid!

In the above approach - which is not valid code - the names of the properties are Strings. The drawback here is that there is no way for the analyzer to tell us if id and name are actually properties of a User or if we misspelled one of the properties. We'd only find out at runtime. Additionally, we get the benefit of code completion and refactoring tools when using the closure approach. Many other features of Query<T> like joins, paging and sorting use a similar construct to identify which properties are being used in the query.

You may not add a 'has-many' or 'has-one' relationship to returningProperties, as this mechanism is achieved by Query.join. If you do add a 'has-one' or 'has-many' relationship property name to the list of returningProperties, an exception will be thrown when the query is executed.

Note that if you omit the primary key of a managed object from returningProperties, it will automatically be added. The primary key is necessary to transform the rows into instances of their ManagedObject<T> subclass.


Results of a fetch can be sorted using the sortBy method of a Query<T>. Here's an example:

var q = new Query<User>()
  ..sortBy((u) => u.dateCreated, QuerySortOrder.ascending);

sortBy takes two arguments: a closure that returns which property to sort by and the order of the sort.

A Query<T> results can be sorted by multiple properties. When multiple sortBys are invoked on a Query<T>, later sortBys are used to break ties in previous sortBys. For example, the following query will sort by last name, then by first name:

var q = new Query<User>()
  ..sortBy((u) => u.lastName, QuerySortOrder.ascending)
  ..sortBy((u) => u.firstName, QuerySortOrder.ascending);

Thus, the following three names would be ordered like so: 'Sally Smith', 'John Wu', 'Sally Wu'.

Exceptions and Errors

An exception encountered in preparing or executing a query will throw a QueryException. RequestControllers, by default, will interpret the event of a QueryException to return a Response to an HTTP client. For common scenarios Aqueduct will return a reasonable status code to the requesting HTTP client. Therefore, you do not have to catch query exceptions unless you wish to override the suggested status code.

Statement Reuse

Aqueduct will parameterize and reuse queries when possible. This allows for significant speed and security improvements. Note that you do not have to do anything special to take advantage of this feature. However, currently at this time, you may not disable this feature.